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2014年5月12日星期一

海龟汤

游戏方法非常简单,在任何地方都可以进行。一开始由出题者给予一个不完整的故事,让猜题者提问各种可能性的问题,而出题者解答这些问题只能说「是」、「不是」或「与此无关」这些答案,因此猜题者必须在有限的线索中推理出事件的始末,藉由限定性的问答拼凑出故事的全貌。

1游戏玩法

游 戏方法非常简单,给予一个不完整的故事,让猜题者提问各种可能性的问题,而出题者解答这些问题只能说「是」、「不是」或「与此无关」这些答案,因此猜题者 必须在有限的线索中推理出事件的始末,藉由限定性的问答拼凑出故事的全貌。(关注海龟汤,请搜索微信公众号【haiguitang-yx】or名称「海龟 汤」)
例如以下海龟汤经典题
「男子」走进一家餐馆,点了一碗「海龟汤」,刚喝了一口汤,男子突然起身。接着,这名男子就跳下悬崖自杀了。这到底是为什么?
第一步:根据汤面(不完整的故事)提供的线索,进行可能性的猜想,开始提问;
第二步:通过汤面提供的线索关键词,进一步提问,挖掘出故事的关键要素,及事件主要动机;
第三步:将已获得证实的线索,组合起来,进行整个事件的推理分析,得出完整解析。
推理的过程:
问题1:海龟汤/味道 → 得知这个味道男子没尝过
问题2:餐馆/过去/男子 → 开启隐藏关键字 「海」
海/遭遇/险恶环境 → 得知男子在海上漂流过
问题3:餐馆/过去/男子 → 开启隐藏关键字「海」
海/情绪/畏惧 → 得知男子怕海
问题4:漂流/事/及时营救 → 得知男子差点饿死
问题5:男子/海龟汤/回忆 → 开启关键字「痛苦经历」
痛苦经历/人/恋人 → 得知失去过恋人
问题6:漂流/事/喝海龟汤 → 得知汤里面不是海龟肉
痛苦经历/人/恋人 → 得知失去过恋人
(推理:汤里其实不是海龟肉,是恋人的肉。)
汤底:(故事的完整解析)
男子在数年前与恋人一同遭遇海难,在海上漂流了一阵子,甚至差点饿死。在最危急的时候,恋人做了一碗海龟汤给男子,欺骗男子其中的海龟肉是从海中猎获的。
这碗救了男子一命的海龟汤,美好的滋味让他永远无法忘怀,获救后的某天得知这家餐馆里有提供海龟汤,便决定前来回味海龟汤的味道。
然而,喝了几口后却发现口中的汤与记忆中的味道完全不同,就在此时才意识到一件事:原来遇难时所喝的海龟汤,其实是他那后来衰弱而死的恋人,当时为了让男子有机会活命下去而取自己身上的肉煮汤供男子实用。
标准例子:
  乡间小路上,五名男子一同前行。突然,天上哗哗地下起雨来,五人中的四人加快了步伐,然而第五人一点也不见着急。最终,五人同时到达目的地。加快脚步的四人成了落汤鸡,而第五人身上却一点也没湿。这是怎么回事呢?
-第五个人带伞了,对吗? (不是
  -那第五个人没穿衣服,对吗 (不是
  -第五个人是婴儿吗? (不是
  -天上的雨一直都在下吗? (是
  -因为四个人走得太快,第五个人被落下了 (不是
  -第五个人呆在淋不到雨的地方 (是
  -第五个人呆在交通工具里 (不是
  -第五个人由那四个人带着走 (是
  -第五个人是死人 (是
  -第五个人呆在棺材里由四个人抬着走! (回答正确
 

2其他

定义

这种游戏为什么叫做「海龟汤」呢?这是因为水平思考最著名、最经典的题目,就是海龟汤的故事。因此就如同可乐几乎成为所有碳酸饮料的代称一样,坊间就用「海龟汤」泛指所有这类型的水平思考游戏。
“海龟汤”是一种水平思考的猜谜游戏,在欧美相当盛行,原文名称是“Lateral Thinking Puzzle”。水平思考属于扩散性思考,运用创造性的新方法解决问题,有别于一般解数理题目所使用的垂直思考。水平思考透过搜集各种不同线索的过程,依 照自身的生活经验或创造能力推理出事情的经过,这就是海龟汤的思考模式。

来源

听 说第一碗汤就是真实故事改编的。一个从战场上退役的军人后喝了海龟汤泪流满面,餐厅里的人关心他,问他怎么了。那个军人就当场出题,反问大家他为什么会 哭,但是条件是他只能答点头或摇头,因为军人被限制不能泄露军中的机密。餐厅里的人纷纷提问,后来谜底是军人的父亲和他一起上战场,但因为被困在营地里, 弹尽粮绝。军人的父亲于是就杀死自己,央求好友把他的肉煮成汤,让伙伴和儿子分食,再骗儿子那碗汤是海龟汤。儿子当初不疑有他地喝了,多年以后尝到真正的 海龟汤,才惊觉原来当年喝的根本不是这种汤,细思之下马上明白了残酷的真相,当场在餐厅里痛哭失声。
后来这个游戏在当地流传了下来,为了纪念这位大兵,就沿用这个故事的典,称这种游戏叫「海龟汤」。
1.There is a man who lives on the top floor of a very tall building. Everyday he gets the elevator down to the ground floor to leave the building to go to work. Upon returning from work though, he can only travel half way up in the lift and has to walk the rest of the way unless it's raining! Why?
This is probably the best known and most celebrated of all lateral thinking puzzles. It is a true classic. Although there are many possible solutions which fit the initial conditions, only the canonical answer is truly satisfying.
2.A man and his son are in a car accident. The father dies on the scene, but the child is rushed to the hospital. When he arrives the surgeon says, "I can't operate on this boy, he is my son! " How can this be?
3.A man is wearing black. Black shoes, socks, trousers, coat, gloves and ski mask. He is walking down a back street with all the street lamps off. A black car is coming towards him with its light off but somehow manages to stop in time. How did the driver see the man?
4.One day Kerry celebrated her birthday. Two days later her older twin brother, Terry, celebrated his birthday. How?
5.Why is it better to have round manhole covers than square ones? This is logical rather than lateral, but it is a good puzzle that can be solved by lateral thinking techniques. It is supposedly used by a very well-known software company as an interview question for prospective employees.
6.A man went to a party and drank some of the punch. He then left early. Everyone else at the party who drank the punch subsequently died of poisoning. Why did the man not die?
7.A man died and went to Heaven. There were thousands of other people there. They were all naked and all looked as they did at the age of 21. He looked around to see if there was anyone he recognized. He saw a couple and he knew immediately that they were Adam and Eve. How did he know?
8.A woman had two sons who were born on the same hour of the same day of the same year. But they were not twins. How could this be so?
9.A man walks into a bar and asks the barman for a glass of water. The barman pulls out a gun and points it at the man. The man says 'Thank you' and walks out. This puzzle claims to be the best of the genre. It is simple in its statement, absolutely baffling and yet with a completely satisfying solution. Most people struggle very hard to solve this one yet they like the answer when they hear it or have the satisfaction of figuring it out.
10.A murderer is condemned to death. He has to choose between three rooms. The first is full of raging fires, the second is full of assassins with loaded guns, and the third is full of lions that haven't eaten in 3 years. Which room is safest for him?
11.A woman shoots her husband. Then she holds him under water for over 5 minutes. Finally, she hangs him. But 5 minutes later they both go out together and enjoy a wonderful dinner together. How can this be?
12. There are two plastic jugs filled with water. How could you put all of this water into a barrel, without using the jugs or any dividers, and still tell which water came from which jug?
13.What is black when you buy it, red when you use it, and gray when you throw it away?
14. Can you name three consecutive days without using the words Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, or Sunday? (or day names in any other language)
15.This is an unusual paragraph. I'm curious how quickly you can find out what is so unusual about it. It looks so plain you would think nothing was wrong with it. In fact, nothing is wrong with it! It is unusual though. Study it, and think about it, but you still may not find anything odd. But if you work at it a bit, you might find out.
Solutions 1.The man is very, very short and can only reach halfway up the elevator buttons. However, if it is raining then he will have his umbrella with him and can press the higher buttons with it.
2.The surgeon was his mother.
3. It was day time.
4. At the time she went into labor, the mother of the twins was traveling by boat. The older twin, Terry, was born first early on March 1st. The boat then crossed a time zone and Kerry, the younger twin, was born on February the 28th. Therefore, the younger twin celebrates her birthday two days before her older brother.
5.A square manhole cover can be turned and dropped down the diagonal of the manhole. A round manhole cannot be dropped down the manhole. So for safety and practicality, all manhole covers should be round.
6.The poison in the punch came from the ice cubes. When the man drank the punch, the ice was fully frozen. Gradually it melted, poisoning the punch.
7.He recognized Adam and Eve as the only people without navels. Because they were not born of women, they had never had umbilical cords and therefore they never had navels. This one seems perfectly logical but it can sometimes spark fierce theological arguments. (Just what a HUMOR list needs!!) ;^)
8.They were two of a set of triplets (or quadruplets, etc.). This puzzle stumps many people. They try outlandish solutions involving test-tube babies or surrogate mothers. Why does the brain search for complex solutions when there is a much simpler one available?
9.The man had hiccups. The barman recognized this from his speech and drew the gun in order to give him a shock. It worked and cured the hiccups--so the man no longer needed the water. The is a simple puzzle to state but a difficult one to solve. It is a perfect example of a seemingly irrational and incongruous situation having a simple and complete explanation. Amazingly this classic puzzle seems to work in different cultures and languages.
10.The third. Lions that haven't eaten in three years are dead.
11. The woman was a photographer. She shot a picture of her husband, developed it, and hung it up to dry.
12. Freeze them first. Take them out of the jugs and put the ice in the barrel. You will be able to tell which water came from which jug.
13.The answer is Charcoal.
14.Sure you can: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow!
15.The letter "e," which is the most common letter in the English language, does not appear once in the long paragraph...
Alternate Solutions 4.Because one of them did not necessarily celebrate their birthday on the day they were born, but celebrated later or earlier. Much simpler than having Mom giving birth while crossing the International Date Line and tossing in a Leap Year and the like. Needlessly complicated.
6.Because he was the one who put the poison in the punch. Of course he wouldn't drink any *after* he poisoned it. Who goes to the effort of making poison ice cubes, except Bond villains and those bad guys in the "Encyclopedia Brown" mystery stories we read in elementary school?
8.Because they were adopted. It's a coincidence they were born on the same exact day. OK, so Occam's Razor could be applied equally to both solutions...
Other alternate solutions offered:
3. There's another good answer to the gent in black being seen by the black car. (#3) Both were lit by the headlights of a car coming the other way.
1.有个男人头下脚上地倒插在沙漠里,手上拿着一根烧尽的火柴棒。
答:男人和朋友坐热汽球横越沙漠,因为热汽球重量太重,所以他们抽签决定谁要被扔下去减轻重量,他们划燃了一根火柴,在把烧过的火柴夹在其他没烧过的火柴里,谁抽到那根烧过的火柴,谁就得牺牲自己被扔下去。后面的事情应该不用我解释了。
2.在欧美国家,门一定都是向内开的,相反的,日本的人家的门则一定都是向外开。
答:日本人的家里,或是一些亚洲人的家里,多半是要脱鞋子才能入内的,所以鞋子大部分会放在玄关,所以如果向内开门 的话,会打到鞋子!而且亚洲人的玄关通常比较小,且和家里地板间有段差,客人只能在相当狭小的地方脱鞋子,要是门向里开的话,客人就必须一边闪门,一边艰 难地把鞋子脱下来,所以相当不便。因为穿鞋子进屋,容易把房子里面弄脏,所以欧美人习惯在门外放一块脚踏垫,让客人可以撮掉鞋子上的脏污。如果门向外开的 话,就会一直打到脚踏垫,很不方便,因此欧美人才选择把门做成往里开。
 

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